Developing Intrinsic Motivation with Choice
According to Vocabulary.com, the word “intrinsic” is an adjective that means “belonging to a thing by its very nature.” Some synonyms for intrinsic are: essential, built-in, constitutional, inherent, integral, inner, internal. This naturally puts us at a disadvantage when trying to develop intrinsic motivation in our students, because we are on the outside. The challenge is to find pathways from the outside to help students become more motivated within themselves.
We all want our students to love school and to enjoy the process of learning. We seem to always be searching for ways to encourage our students to put forth their best efforts in everything we ask them to do. We desperately want each student to be self-motivated to learn and to follow the rules, and we employ a variety of strategies to promote rule-following behavior and high academic achievement. We often become teachers because we loved school ourselves, so it can be difficult for us to understand why some students don’t. Teachers can have excellent classroom management and still struggle with engaging and motivating all the students in their care. We know that to grow academically and socially, children need us to recognize and encourage their strengths and positive efforts. What is the best way to offer recognition and encouragement that will help develop intrinsic motivation in all our students?
Essential First Step
Our first step in encouraging a student to become more intrinsically motivated is to create the optimal environment that provides interesting, gratifying, personally meaningful learning experiences. When students feel a sense of purpose in their work, they are more likely to investigate and expand into new areas of learning and to persevere when faced with challenges. Limiting the amount of “teacher talk” by asking more questions allows students to actively work on solving problems and finding answers, giving them a greater sense of control.
Giving students choice is also critical to increasing engagement, ultimately leading to the development of intrinsic motivation. We offer many different kinds of choices during the school day, such as where to sit and read in the classroom, to work with a partner or alone, to use markers or colored pencils. These choices give students a degree of control over their daily life at school, contributing to their sense of autonomy.
In addition to these types of choices, we can provide students with choices in their learning with a strategy called Academic Choice. Students become highly engaged and productive when they have choices in what or how they are learning. They’re likely to think more deeply and creatively, work with more persistence, and use a wider range of academic skills and strategies.
Academic Choice is a powerful three-part strategy for motivating students’ learning that involves planning, working, and reflecting. When we use Academic Choice, we present the goal of the lesson or activity, then give students a list of options for what to learn and/or how to go about their learning in order to reach the defined goal. Finally, the lesson ends with reflection so students can consider their work and the choices they made. This three-part structure mirrors the natural learning cycle, which involves setting goals, enacting on those goals, and then reflecting on what was learned.
Students with intrinsic motivation will engage in activities because they want to, not because the teacher told them to. Creating an optimal learning environment and providing regular opportunities for choice throughout the school day allows students to work with a sense of competence, autonomy, and satisfaction. The structure of Academic Choice helps students practice valuable skills for lifelong learning, such as how to make wise choices, how to follow through on those choices, and how to adjust and adapt when needed. All of these factors together contribute to the development of intrinsic motivation.